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Muscle lesions are classified as grade I, II and III, based on the amount of fibres disrupted according to clinical and imaging investigations [2] [3] :. Grade I mild strains affect only a limited number of fibers in the muscle. There is no decrease in strength and there is full active and passive range of motion. Pain and tenderness are often delayed to the next day.

Grade II moderate strains have nearly half of muscle fibers torn.

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Acute and significant pain is accompanied by swelling and a minor decrease in muscle strength. Grade III severe strains represent complete rupture of the muscle. This means either the tendon is separated from the muscle belly or the muscle belly is actually torn in 2 parts.

Severe swelling and pain and a complete loss of function are characteristic for this type of strain. Three types of muscle are at possible risk of injury: [4]. Muscle strain treatment depends upon an accurate diagnosis from your health professional. The severity of your muscle strain, and what function or loads your injured muscle will need to cope with, will impact the length of your healing and rehabilitation process. New treatments are an expanding area.

A growing number of health care professionals are using biological factors to favour healing of muscle injuries. In designing a survey, it is important to consider the specific characteristics of the respondents, to make sure that the questions are relevant, clear, accessible and easy to understand.

Some practical considerations to keep in mind are whether the respondents can read, have language or cultural barriers, have disabilities, and can be easily reached.

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Example: A transgender employee may self-identify as female but a third party may identify her as male. The data can be recorded in a wide variety of ways including written notes, audio recording and video recording. In focus groups, the interviewer facilitates the session. A select group of people are brought together, asked questions, encouraged to listen to each other's comments, and have their answers recorded.

The same set of questions may be used for a number of different groups, each of which is constituted slightly differently, and for a range of purposes.

Focus groups may be facilitated by professionals, but this is not always needed. The decision to hire a professional facilitator may depend on the goals of the focus group research, the nature of the questions asked, the skills and experience of staff taking part, and the need for confidentiality or anonymity. Or, it may be of greater value to organize a group that includes people representing all key internal and external stakeholders, to allow for contrasting ideas to be expressed and discussed.

In some cases, this may not be possible without setting up separate focus groups or hiring a professional facilitator who is not connected to the organization. Typically, interviews involve a set of standard questions being asked of all respondents, on a one-on-one basis, so that accurate trends and gaps can be drawn from the data. Interviews are commonly conducted face-to-face, but for more rapid results, can also be done over the telephone, or, as technology advances, through video-conferencing and other means.

Trained staff or external experts can gather data by identifying and recording the characteristics and behaviour of research subjects through observation, either within or outside of an organization. Observed data can include information gathered using all of the senses available to the researcher, including sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. Example: A human rights organization that offers a mediation service hires a mediation expert to observe mediators and service users and provide feedback about any issues of concern related to human rights.

To minimize potential stress and anxiety experienced by the people being observed, staff and service users are informed in advance of the purpose and goals of the exercise. Staff is advised that the observed data gathered will only be used for research purposes and not shared with their managers. The expert maintains access to the data, and the results are reported on an aggregated and summarized basis to prevent individuals from being identified. Hiring experts, while potentially expensive, can add validity and credibility to research analysis because they are often perceived as having no vested interest in the research results.

Information gathered using observation techniques differs from interviewing, because the observer does not actively ask the respondent questions. Observed data can include everything from field research, where someone lives in another context or culture for a period of time participant observation , to photographs that show the interaction between service providers and service users direct observation. The data can be recorded in many of the same ways as interviews taking notes, audio, video and through pictures, photos or drawings.

Each source of data used to collect information has its strengths and weaknesses. Some of the more common potential strengths and weaknesses identified above have been highlighted. Analyzing data from multiple perspectives and relying on data from different sources can strengthen the conclusions drawn from research.

Data can be collected and analyzed on a short-term or project basis in response to situations or needs that arise from time to time. A short-term data collection project would include a start and a finish date, with set deliverables to be carried out over a certain period of time.

The best practice is to collect data on an ongoing, permanent basis, and to analyze this data as often as is needed to identify, address and monitor barriers to Code -protected persons or other persons based on non- Code grounds.


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Data collected in a time-limited study may be less complete than data collected through ongoing monitoring. This is because short-term studies do not allow for the assessment of trends, patterns or changes over time.

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However, where costs, time and resources are a factor, short-term studies may be the preferred choice to fulfil a need and project goals. Other factors may also influence the reliability of the data. For example, people may modify behaviour while under scrutiny during the data collection period. When planning on how best to collect data in Step 4, it is important to be aware of the practical considerations and best practices for addressing logistical challenges organizations often face at this stage of the process.

Implementing a data collection plan requires attention to matters such as:.

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Step 5 involves analyzing and interpreting the data collected. Explaining the technical steps involved in analyzing and interpreting data is beyond the scope of this guide. An organization will have to determine whether it has the internal capacity and expertise to analyze and interpret data itself, or whether it will need the help of an external consultant. A smaller organization that has basic data collection needs may be able to rely on internal expertise and existing resources to interpret the meaning of gathered data.

Example: An organization with 50 employees wants to find out if it has enough women working in management positions, and if there are barriers to equal opportunity and advancement. The organization counts the number of female employees it has 25 , and determines how many of these employees are working in supervisory and management positions two. A few motivated employees identify some issues of concern, like gender discrimination, that may have broader implications for the organization as a whole.

Efforts are made to work with female employees, human resources and other staff to address these barriers. The organization makes a commitment to foster a more equitable, inclusive work environment for all employees. Once an organization has analyzed and interpreted the results of the data collected, it may decide to act on the data, collect more of the same type of data or modify its approach.

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Quantitative and qualitative information can provide a solid basis for creating an effective action plan designed to achieve strategic organizational human resources, human rights, equity and diversity goals identified through the data collection process. If an organization feels it has enough information to develop an action plan, it should consider including the following elements:.

In some cases, an organization may decide that it needs to collect more information because there are gaps in the data collected, or areas where the data is unclear or inconclusive. This may prompt them to conduct a more detailed internal and external assessment go back to Step 1 or try another approach. How long will the data be collected the scope of data collection?

See City of Toronto, Publications and reports , online: www. Comparison is made between a group claiming discrimination and another group that shares the relevant characteristics, to determine if disadvantage, denial, devaluation, oppression or marginalization has been experienced. A comparator group must share relevant characteristics with the group of interest in the area being questioned for comparison to be meaningful. Who the appropriate comparator group is will depend on the context and is often contested between litigants.

Often the comparator group is a more privileged group in society, often the dominant group. In comparison, data collection on other grounds, such as sexual orientation, has not been done much in the past. Notably, the national Census does not include a question about sexual orientation, although sexual orientation has been included on other non-mandatory surveys and has been the subject of testing. Icart, M. Labelle, R.

Skip to main content Skip to local navigation Skip to global navigation Skip to footer. What is involved in collecting data — six steps to success. Page content If an organization is considering whether to collect data on its own or get help from an external consultant, it will need to have enough information to make an informed decision about how to proceed.


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Conduct a review of all policies, practices and procedures applicable to employees, service users or another appropriate audience: Does the organization have human resources and human rights policies, practices and procedures that are accessible to all employees or to the people they serve? Does the organization have clear, transparent and fair complaint procedures in place to deal with allegations of discrimination, harassment or systemic barriers?

Have any claims, grievances or allegations been made or received relating to discrimination, harassment or systemic barriers? Have any been dealt with appropriately and in accordance with existing polices, practices and procedures? Explore organizational culture from a human rights, diversity and equity-inclusion lens: What are the organization's mandate, goals and core values?